High Blood Pressure

Hypertension: "High blood pressure; transitory or sustained elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure to a level likely to induce cardiovascular damage or other adverse consequences."

High blood pressure (BP) or hypertension is a medical condition in which the blood pressure is chronically elevated. Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke (CVA), congestive heart failure (CHF), end-stage renal disease and peripheral vascular disease.


Age of consent

What does the age of consent mean? The age of consent is the age at which a young person is legally able to understand and agree to consensual sex. There are some important laws regarding sex and young people, and these are usually known as the age of consent laws. In most countries, until you reach this age it is illegal for somebody to have sex with you, however old they may be. Sometimes the law is slightly different when the partners are of a similar age, but there is usually still a minimum age below which sex is always illegal.



The word sex is used to refer to a variety of sexual activities, and can mean different things to different people. When people talk about sex (sexual intercourse) they are usually referring to penetrative sex, where a man inserts his penis into the vagina or anus of a sexual partner.



Why should you use a condom when you have sexual intercourse? Condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are the only form of protection that can help stop the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prevent pregnancy.



Contraception is the use of various methods to prevent pregnancy. Pregnancy happens when a man's sperm meets a woman's egg and fertilisation (also known as conception) occurs. Contraceptives stop this from happening, either by preventing the sperm from meeting with the egg, or by making conditions in the body unsuitable for fertilisation to occur.


HIV Testing

The only way to tell if you have HIV is to take an HIV test (usually an HIV antibody test). You cannot tell if someone has HIV or AIDS just by looking at them, and HIV cannot be diagnosed through symptoms. AIDS and HIV symptoms are not specific, and may be indicative of many other illnesses, which is why an HIV test is the only way to receive a definitive diagnosis.


HIV Transmission

What are the main routes of HIV transmission? These are the main ways in which someone can become infected with HIV

  • Unprotected penetrative sex with someone who is infected.
  • Injection or transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, donations of semen (artificial insemination), skin grafts or organ transplants taken from someone who is infected.
  • From a mother who is infected to her baby; this can occur during pregnancy, at birth and through breastfeeding.
  • Sharing unsterilised injection equipment that has previously been used by someone who is infected.



A woman usually becomes pregnant after having unprotected sexual intercourse. This is where a man puts his erect penis inside a woman's vagina. The friction caused by moving his penis in and out of her vagina will cause him to get increasingly excited until eventually he ejaculates (or 'comes') and releases a sticky white substance called semen. This semen contains millions of tiny sperm cells, which then swim up the woman's vagina, into her uterus (womb) and then into her fallopian tubes where they may join with the tiny egg that she releases from one of her ovaries every month. If this 'joining' (also known as fertilisation or conception) occurs, then she will become pregnant.